Speech is the way we say sounds and words. Speech involves the coordination of muscles of the tongue, lips, and jaw to produce sounds that generate language.
Language refers to the words we use and how we use them to share our thoughts and express our wants and needs.
Receptive language is the ability to understand and comprehend language.
Expressive language is the ability to communicate language through gestures, words, sentences, or writing.
Communication is the means in which we connect with other people. It is how we exchange information with others on a day to day basis.
Cognition is a term that refers to the brains process for thinking, reasoning, making decisions, and solving problems. It is the gathering of information that an individual has acquired through learning or experiences.
Pragmatics is how we use language and communicate socially.
Fine motor skills refers to the coordination of the smaller muscles to complete tasks such as picking up an item between our fingers and thumb, writing, tying shoelaces, and buttoning clothes. This also includes the coordination of muscles of the face, tongue, and feet.
Gross motor skills are skills that involve whole body movement and the larger muscles of the body for crawling, walking, jumping, swimming, etc. This also includes hand-eye coordination that is required for throwing or catching a ball, as well as riding a bicycle or scooter.
Screening is a brief way of finding out whether or not a child may be at risk for a delay and/or need further evaluation.
Developmental delay refers to when a child is not functioning at an expected level for his/her age.
Late talker is a term referring to a toddler between 18 and 30 months that is typically developing with understanding of language (receptive language), play skills, and motor skills, but they have a limited spoken vocabulary.
Pre-linguistic skills are the behaviors that do not involve language, but lay down the groundwork for the development of later communication skills (i.e. interaction, attention, cognition, play, problem solving, etc.).
Attention is the ability to sustain effort and be able to hold this effort to complete an activity, despite any present distractions.
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Joint engagement refers to periods of back and forth turns between a child and an adult interacting with the same object.
Gestures are a form of nonverbal communication involving movements of the hands, face, or other body parts used with the intention to communicate. Gestures are a very important part of communication development because it is the start of intentional communication. Intentional communication is a stepping-stone toward verbal language.
Babbling is an important skill that comes before true words. it involves vocalizing and experimenting with speech sounds. There are various types of babbling: consonant-vowel (i.e. “baaa”), vowel-consonant (i.e. “eeeeb”), reduplicated babbling (i.e. “baabaa”), non-reduplicated babbling (i.e. “baamaa”).
Imaginative play is when a child uses their imagination to role-play various scenarios they have seen or would like to experience.
Giving a verbal instruction, a cue, or physical assistance to help a child complete a task.
Showing a child what you want them to do by doing it first yourself
Gradually increasing the level of difficulty to help a child achieve higher level of complexity.
Expansion is when an individual “expands” the child’s utterance by making an incomplete phrase more appropriate and accurate, but no new information is added. For example, the child says “fish swim”, and an individual responds with, “Yes, the fish is swimming.”
Extension is when an individual “extends” a child’s utterance by adding more information. For example, the child says “girl cry”, and an adult responds with, “Yes, the girl is crying. She got hurt.”
Parallel talk is when an adult observes what the child is doing, seeing, or hearing and narrates what is going on. The adult is simply being a commentator and a response is not expected from the child.
Self talk is when an adult describes what they personally are doing, seeing, or hearing when the child is around. Similar to parallel talk, the adult is commenting on personal actions rather than the actions of the child.
Auditory Processing is the process of attending to auditory stimulus, distinguishing between similar sounds or words, and separating relevant speech from background noise.
Sensory Processing/Integration refers to the process the brain gathers, organizes, and reacts to registering sensory stimulation from the environment and one’s own body. This directly influences learning and attention (i.e. how we sit and listen in a classroom).
Self Regulation is the ability to control and adjust one’s own feelings, thoughts, energy level, and behaviors.